Small Business Guide to Hiring Minors

There are several reasons small businesses choose to hire minors. A company often employs minors despite their inexperience and sometimes limited availability to reduce labor costs or bolster their team for seasonal crowds. Teens may not have extensive work experience, but they’re ready and willing to earn some extra cash seasonally, flooding the workforce when school is out. During the summer months, the youth labor force of 16- to 24-year-olds has a history of growth. Between April and July of 2022, over 2.5 million youth workers entered the U.S. workforce. This guide will help you decide whether or not hiring minors is the right move for your business and teach you the important considerations to make before taking on teen employees.

Understanding Federal and State Child Labor Laws

The first thing to be aware of when hiring minors is the unique hourly and job duty restrictions set forth by the Wage and Hour Division (WHD) of the U.S. Department of Labor (DOL) through the Fair Labor Standards Act. One facet of this act is used to uphold youth employment standards which work to protect minors by limiting working hours and prohibiting the performance of hazardous occupations. Each age group has its own unique set of restrictions that must be followed. If employers are found to be in violation of child labor laws at the federal or state level, they can be fined, taken to court, and even imprisoned. Let’s discuss what you need to know about the legalities of hiring a minor.

How to obtain a work permit for hiring a minor

Some states require employers to obtain a work permit if they plan on hiring minors. Employers will often be required to fill out an application to receive this permit. This process allows the DOL to collect information on the age of the individual being hired and the duties to be performed for the position. Some states also require the minor themselves to apply for and receive a minor work permit before beginning employment. These may be distributed by the DOL or the teen’s school district. Visit the DOL’s website to learn more about your state’s minor work permit process.

What is the 90-day eligibility period?

The first day of work marks the beginning of the 90-day eligibility period. This is not the job offer, acceptance, or hire date but the first actual day of work. This period lasts for 90 consecutive calendar days regardless of how many days were worked by the minor. During these 90 days, employers must pay youth workers under 20 years old a minimum of $4.25 per hour unless prohibited by local or state laws. When this period is over, employers must increase pay to at least the state’s minimum wage. If a worker turns 20 at any point during this 90-day period, employers must raise their wage on the employee’s birthdate.

Child labor laws by age group

Under 14: The FLSA has set the minimum working age to 14. Therefore any “work” performed by those under 14 years old can only include duties such as casual babysitting, delivering newspapers, wreath making, acting, etc. Minors can also perform non-hazardous agricultural work under 12 with parental consent. Technically there are no federally set hourly restrictions for minors under 14 years old because they are not legally allowed to work a regular job, but states often have their own laws for this age group.

Ages 14 and 15: The FLSA states that 14- and 15-year-olds are allowed to work jobs that do not interfere with their schooling, health, or well-being. There are also limitations on when and how often work is done and the type of work performed. It’s important to note that there are some exceptions to these rules that can be found here in this FLSA bulletin.

Fourteen- and 15-year-olds can only work:

  • Non-school hours
  • Up to 3 hours on a school day
  • Up to 8 hours on a non-school day
  • Up to 18 hours a week during the school year
  • Up to 40 hours a week during school breaks
  • From 7 am to 7 pm between Labor Day and May 31
  • From 7 am to 9 pm between June 1 and Labor Day

Fourteen- and 15-year-olds are prohibited from working jobs that involve:

  • Manufacturing
  • Mining
  • Processing
  • Motor vehicle operation
  • Window washing
  • Baking and cooking
  • Peddling

Ages 16 and 17: There are no hourly restrictions for this age group. Most of the same limitations apply when working a nonagricultural occupation considered hazardous by the Secretary of Labor. They are, however, allowed to work agricultural jobs that have been deemed hazardous.

Ages 18 and up: Individuals 18 and older are permitted to do any job and do not have hourly restrictions. The only minor-related law that affects this age group is the 90-day eligibility period wage rule. Employers are allowed to pay anyone under the age of 20 the youth minimum wage of $4.25 per hour for the first 90 calendar days of employment.

Child Labor Laws by Age Group Comparison Table

Under 14 Ages 14 and 15 Ages 16 and 17 Ages 18 and up
Number of hours a minor can work No restrictions 18 hours per school week; 40 hours per non-school week No restriction No restriction
Workday hours No restrictions 3 hours per school day; 8 hours per non-school day No restriction No restriction
Payment of minor Set by private agreement $4.25 per hour for the first 90 days; at least $7.25 per hour after 90 days $4.25 per hour for the first 90 days; at least $7.25 per hour after 90 days $4.25 per hour for the first 90 days; at least $7.25 per hour after 90 days OR if they turn 20 during the first 90 days
Approved job positions Babysitting, acting, newspaper delivery, chores, select agricultural labor, family business, etc. Non-hazardous positions Non-hazardous positions All positions
Special safety requirements Subject to state-level laws NO jobs operating, repairing, or cleaning power-driven machines NO jobs operating, repairing, or cleaning power-driven machines; CAN operate lawn machinery such as lawnmowers, weed cutters, etc. None
School requirements

(Note: This is intended to detail any measures required to ensure the job doesn’t interfere with a minor’s education.)

No requirements due to limited jobs available for the age group Work can only be scheduled between 7 am and 7 pm; work can extend to 9 pm June 1 through Labor Day None None

 

Child labor law by job type

The DOL classifies child labor under two categories, nonagricultural and agricultural. Each category holds similar restrictions, but there are exceptions for select age groups depending on the work performed. For example, 16- and 17-year-olds are prohibited from performing nonagricultural duties deemed hazardous by the Secretary of Labor but are allowed to perform hazardous agricultural duties. Two resources that go into detail about the prohibited and permitted job duties for either category are the Child Labor Bulletin 101 and Child Labor Bulletin 102, which declare the child labor provisions for both types of work.

Nonagricultural Job Child Labor Laws

Under 14 Ages 14 and 15 Ages 16 and 17 Ages 18 and up
Hour restrictions No restrictions due to limited jobs available for age group 18 hours per school week and 3 hours per school day; 40 hours per non-school week and 8 hours per non-school day

Work can only be scheduled between 7 am and 7 pm; work can extend to 9 pm June 1 through Labor Day

No restrictions No restrictions
Job restrictions No restrictions due to limited jobs available for age group May NOT work a hazardous job, do door-to-door sales, or act as a lifeguard or swim instructor May NOT work a hazardous job No restrictions

 

Agricultural Job Child Labor Laws

Under 14 Ages 14 and 15 Ages 16 and 17 Ages 18 and up
Hour restrictions May only work hours outside of school May only work hours outside of school No restrictions No restrictions
Job restrictions Ages 12 and older can only work non-hazardous jobs; Minors under 12 may be employed with parental consent on a farm with a federal minimum wage provision exemption. May only work non-hazardous jobs No restrictions No restrictions

 

Child labor law by state

Alabama

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Alabama child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week.

Required breaks: Workers between the ages of 14 to 15 are required to take a documented 30-minute break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the months when school is not in session — during this period, they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 5:00 a.m. or after 10:00 p.m. on any day preceding a school day. 

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working in certain hazardous occupations.

Alabama Department of Labor Contact Information:

Alaska

Minimum wage: $10.85 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Alaska child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, the combined hours spent on work and school may not exceed 9 hours on any day, and they may not work more than 23 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 40 hours per week.

All minors are not allowed to work more than 6 days per week.

While every employer in Alaska is subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session. 

Required breaks: Employers in Alaska are required to provide minors with a 30-minute break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: According to Alaska state law, workers between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work before 5:00 a.m. or after 9:00 p.m. 

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working in certain hazardous occupations.

Alaska Department of Labor Contact Information:

Arizona

Minimum wage: $13.85 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Arizona child labor laws, minors under the age of 16 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on a school day, 8 hours on a non-school day, or 18 hours per week. 
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers in Arizona are not required to provide workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: According to Arizona state law, minors under the age of 16 may not work before 6:00 a.m. or after 9:30 p.m. when there is school the next day (when there is no school the next day, they may work until 11:00 p.m.).

While all employers in Arizona are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law prohibits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 from working during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

Also, it's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working in certain hazardous occupations.

Arizona Department of Labor Contact Information:

Arkansas

Minimum wage: $11 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Arkansas child labor laws, minors under the age of 16 may not work more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week. They are also not allowed to work more than 6 days per week. Minors who are 16 years old may not work for more than 10 consecutive hours or more than 10 hours in a 24-hour period.

While all employers in Arkansas are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Arkansas does not require employers to provide breaks to minors.

Restrictions: According to Arkansas state law, minors under the age of 16 may not work before 6:00 a.m. or after 7:00 p.m. when there is school the next day (when there is no school the next day, they may work until 9:00 p.m.). 

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

Additionally, it's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working in certain hazardous occupations.

Arkansas Department of Labor Contact Information:

California

Minimum wage: $15.50 per hour

Number of hours minors can work:California’s child labor laws are particularly complex compared to other states. 

Minors under the age of 12 are not allowed to work except in the entertainment industry on permits issued by the Labor Commissioner.

Minors between the ages of 12 to 13 are only allowed to work on holidays and weekends, and they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 4 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 48 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week. 

Required breaks: Employers in California must provide workers of all ages with a 30-minute meal break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours. Workers are also entitled to a 10-minute rest period for each four-hour shift.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 12 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 5:00 a.m. or after 10:00 p.m. on days preceding a school day (they may work until 12:30 a.m. on any night preceding a non-school day).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working in certain hazardous occupations.

California Department of Labor Contact Information:

Colorado

Minimum wage: $13.65 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Colorado child labor laws, minors may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week. After school hours, minors under the age of 16 may not work more than 6 hours if the next day is a school day. 

While all employers in Colorado are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Workers of all ages in Colorado are entitled to a 30-minute meal break for every five-hour shift and a 10-minute rest period for every four-hour shift. 

Restrictions: According to Colorado state law, minors under the age of 16 are not allowed to work before 5:00 a.m. or after 9:30 p.m. if the next day is a school day (babysitters, actors, models, and performers are exempt from this rule). 

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working in certain hazardous occupations.

Colorado Department of Labor Contact Information:

Connecticut

Minimum wage: $14 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: According to Connecticut child labor laws, minors enrolled in school are allowed to work up to 6 hours per day (8 hours on Friday, Saturday, and Sunday) and 32 hours per week on school weeks as well as 8 hours per day and 48 hours per week on non-school weeks. They may not work more than 6 days per week during non-school weeks.

As for minors who are not enrolled in school, they can work 8 hours per day and 48 hours per week in the retail/mercantile industry (if they work in the restaurant, manufacturing, mechanical, recreation, amusement, or theater industries, they can work up to 9 hours per day). They also may not work more than 6 days a week. 

While all employers in Connecticut are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers are required to provide a 30-minute meal break for every 7.5-hour shift. 

Restrictions: According to Connecticut state law, minors who are enrolled in school may not work before 6:00 a.m. The rule for how late they can work ranges from 10:00 p.m. to midnight, depending on the industry and whether the next day is a school day. 

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working in certain hazardous occupations.

Connecticut Department of Labor Contact Information:

Delaware

Minimum wage: $11.75 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Delaware child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 4 hours on school days (those who work for employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act, i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce, may not work more than 3 hours per school day), 8 hours per day on non-school days, or 18 hours per week. 
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week.

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 are allowed to work the following number of hours: 

  • They may not spend more than 12 hours combined in work and school on any day, and they must have at least 8 consecutive hours of non-work, non-school time in each 24-hour period.

Required breaks: Employers are required to provide minors with a 30-minute break for every 5 consecutive hours of work.

Restrictions: Workers between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they can work until 9:00 p.m.). 

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations.

Delaware Department of Labor Contact Information:

Florida

Minimum wage: $11 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Florida child labor laws, minors who are between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any day preceding a school day or 15 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Minors who are between the ages of 16 to 17 may work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 8 hours on any day preceding a school day or 30 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers are required to provide minors with a 30-minute break for every 4 consecutive hours of work.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:30 a.m. or after 11:00 p.m. It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Florida Department of Labor Contact Information:

Georgia

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour for employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce). The rate for other employers with 6 or more employees is $5.15 per hour.

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Georgia child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on a school day, 8 hours on a non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers in Georgia are not required to provide workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: Workers between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Georgia Department of Labor Contact Information:

Hawaii

Minimum wage: $12 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Hawaii child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week. 
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week.

Required breaks: Employers are required to provide minors between the ages of 14 to 15 with a 30-minute break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: On school days and days before school days, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. On non-school days that are not before school days, they may not work before 6:00 a.m. or after 9:00 p.m.

While all employers in Hawaii are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law prohibits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 from working during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Hawaii Department of Labor Contact Information:

Idaho

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Idaho child labor laws, minors under the age of 16 may not work more than 9 hours per day or 54 hours per week.

While all employers in Idaho are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Idaho are not required to provide workers with any breaks. 

Restrictions: According to state law, minors under the age of 16 are not allowed to work before 6:00 a.m. or after 9:00 p.m. 

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Idaho Department of Labor Contact Information:

Illinois

Minimum wage: $13 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Illinois child labor laws, minors under the age of 16 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours per day (the combined hours of work and school may not exceed 8 hours per day) or 24 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day, 48 hours per week, or 6 days per week.

While all employers in Idaho are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Illinois are required to provide minors under the age of 16 with a 30-minute meal break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors under the age of 16 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they can work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Illinois Department of Labor Contact Information:

Indiana

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Indiana child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on a school day, 8 hours on a non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

By default, minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may work up to 8 hours per day, 30 hours per week, and 6 days per week (these hours can be extended with written permission from the child’s parent).

Required breaks: Employers in Indiana must provide minors with a total of 30 minutes of breaks (this time may be all in one break or broken into two breaks) whenever they work more than 6 consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). Minors who are between the ages of 16 to 17 may not start work between 12:00 a.m. to 6:00 a.m., and they may work until 10:00 p.m. on nights that are followed by a school day (these hours can also be extended with written permission from the child’s parent).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Indiana Department of Labor Contact Information:

Iowa

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Iowa child labor laws, minors under 16 years old are allowed to work the following number of hours: 

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 4 hours per day (outside school hours) or 28 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

While all employers in Iowa are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers are required to provide minors with a 30-minute break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors under the age of 16 are not allowed to work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they can work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Iowa Department of Labor Contact Information:

Kansas

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. 

According to Kansas child labor laws, the following limits apply to minors under the age of 16 who work for employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce):

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Minors under the age of 16 who work for employers not covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act are allowed to work 8 hours per day and 40 hours per week year-round.

Required breaks: Employers in Kansas are not required to provide workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: If their employer is covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors under the age of 16 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they can work until 9:00 p.m.). If their employer is not covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act, they may not work before 7:00 a.m. or after 10:00 p.m. when school is in session.

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Kansas Department of Labor Contact Information:

Kentucky

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Kentucky child labor laws, workers between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

By default, minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work more than 6 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 30 hours per week (there are no such limits when school is not in session). With parental permission, these hours can be extended up to 6.5 hours on any school day and 40 hours per week when school is in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Kentucky are required to provide minors with a 30-minute lunch break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours. 

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they can work until 9:00 p.m.). 

By default, minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:00 a.m., after 10:30 p.m. on nights preceding a school day (this can be extended to 11:00 p.m. with parental permission), or after 1:00 a.m. on nights preceding a non-school day.

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Kentucky Department of Labor Contact Information:

Louisiana

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. 

According to Louisiana child labor laws, minors under the age of 16 may not work more than 3 hours on any school day or 18 hours per week when school is in session. They also may not work more than 40 hours per week at any time of the year.

Required breaks: Employers in Louisiana must provide minors with a 30-minute break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors who are under the age of 16 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they can work until 9:00 p.m.). Also, minors who are 16 years old may not work between the hours of 11:00 p.m. to 5:00 a.m. prior to the start of any school day, and minors who are 17 years old may not work between the hours of 12:00 a.m. to 5:00 a.m. prior to the start of any school day.

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Louisiana Department of Labor Contact Information:

Maine

Minimum wage: $13.80 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Maine child labor laws, minors under the age of 16 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Though there are some exceptions depending on the occupation and whether the student is enrolled in an alternative education plan, most minors between the ages of 16 to 17 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • They may not work more than 6 hours on a standard school day, 8 hours on the last school day of the week, 10 hours on any day when school is not in session, or 24 hours on any week with 3 or more school days. Also, they may not work more than 50 hours on any week with less than three school days or on the first or last week of the school year.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week.

Required breaks: Employers in Maine must provide their employees with a 30-minute break whenever they work 6 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors under the age of 16 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they can work until 9:00 p.m.). 

As for minors between the ages of 16 to 17, they may not work before 7:00 a.m. on school days, before 5:00 a.m. on non-school days, after 10:15 p.m. on nights prior to school days, or after 12:00 a.m. on nights prior to non-school days (also, minors who are 16 years old may not work during school hours). 

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Maine Department of Labor Contact Information:

Maryland

Minimum wage: $13.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Maryland child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work for more than 3 hours per day or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work for more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not spend more than 12 hours combined at school and work on any day, and they must have 8 consecutive hours of non-school, non-work time in each 24-hour period.

Required breaks: All minors must be provided with a 30-minute break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are not allowed to work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 to Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Maryland Department of Labor Contact Information:

Massachusetts

Minimum wage: $15 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Massachusetts child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, 18 hours per week, or 6 days per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day, 40 hours per week, or 6 days per week. 

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work more than 9 hours per day, 48 hours per week, or 6 days per week.

Required breaks: Employers in Massachusetts are required to provide workers with a 30-minute meal break whenever they work more than 6 consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). 

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:00 a.m. or after 10:00 p.m. on nights preceding a school day (if the establishment stops serving customers at 10:00 p.m., they may work until 10:15 p.m.), or after 11:30 p.m. on nights that do not precede a school day (if they work in a restaurant or racetrack, they may work until 12:00 a.m. on nights that do not precede a school day).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Massachusetts Department of Labor Contact Information:

Michigan

Minimum wage: $10.10 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Michigan child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 and 15 may not spend more than a combined 48 hours per week in work and school. Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work more than 24 hours per week when school is in session or 48 hours per week when school is not in session. Minors of all ages may not work more than 6 days per week, 10 hours per day, or an average of 8 hours per day in any week.

While all employers in Michigan are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Michigan are required to provide minors with a 30-minute break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: According to Michigan state law, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 9:00 p.m. When school is in session, minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:00 a.m., after 10:30 p.m. on Sunday through Thursday, or after 11:30 p.m. on Friday and Saturday (when school is not in session, they may work until 11:30 p.m. on every day of the week). 

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work before 7:00 a.m. or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Michigan Department of Labor Contact Information:

Minnesota

Minimum wage: The minimum wage in Minnesota is $10.59 per hour for large employers (annual gross revenues of $500,000 or more) and $8.63 per hour for other employers.

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Minnesota child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

While all employers in Minnesota are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Minnesota are required to provide workers with a meal break whenever they work 8 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: According to Minnesota state law, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 9:00 p.m. Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 5:00 a.m. on school days or after 11:00 p.m. on nights before school.

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work before 7:00 a.m. or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Minnesota Department of Labor Contact Information:

Mississippi

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Mississippi child labor laws, all minors are prohibited from working during school hours or more than 18 hours per week when school is in session. Also, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

While all employers in Mississippi are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Mississippi are not required to provide workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Mississippi Department of Labor Contact Information:

Missouri

Minimum wage: $12 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Missouri child labor laws, minors may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, 40 hours per week, or 6 days per week.

While all employers in Missouri are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 18 hours per week when school is in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Missouri are not required to provide workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 and 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they can work until 9:00 p.m.). Also, if they are employed in a regional fair that the Fair Labor Standards Act does not cover, they may work until 10:30 p.m. during summer break. It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Missouri Department of Labor Contact Information:

Montana

Minimum wage: $9.95 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Montana child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers in Montana are not required to provide workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Montana Department of Labor Contact Information:

Nebraska

Minimum wage: $10.50 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Nebraska child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week.

While all employers in Nebraska are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Nebraska are not required to provide minors with any breaks.

Restrictions: According to Nebraska state law, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work before 6:00 a.m. or after 10:00 p.m. 

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Nebraska Department of Labor Contact Information:

Nevada

Minimum wage: $9.50 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Nevada child labor laws, minors under the age of 16 may not work more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week unless they perform in a motion picture or work on a farm.

While all employers in Nevada are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Nevada must provide workers with a 30-minute meal period whenever they work for 8 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: If they work for employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Nevada Department of Labor Contact Information:

New Hampshire

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to New Hampshire child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 23 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week.

While all employers in New Hampshire are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work more than 10.5 hours per day (the number of hours they can work per week ranges from 30 to 48, depending on their school schedule). They also may not work for more than 6 consecutive days.

Required breaks: Employers in New Hampshire are required to provide workers with a 30-minute meal break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours, unless it is feasible for them to eat during their work hours.

Restrictions: According to New Hampshire state law, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work before 7:00 a.m. or after 9:00 p.m. Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work 2 nights between 8:00 p.m. to 6:00 a.m. and an 8-hour shift on any day during that same week. 

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

New Hampshire Department of Labor Contact Information:

New Jersey

Minimum wage: $14.13 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to New Jersey child labor laws, most minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours per day or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day, 40 hours per week, or 6 days per week.

At all times of the year, minors who are 16 years old may not work more than 8 hours per day, 40 hours per week, or 6 days per week.

Required breaks: Employers must provide minors with a 30-minute meal period whenever they work 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). When school is in session, minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:00 a.m. or after 11:00 p.m. on days preceding a school day. It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

New Jersey Department of Labor Contact Information:

New Mexico

Minimum wage: $12 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to New Mexico child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers in New Mexico are not required to provide workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

New Mexico Department of Labor Contact Information:

New York

Minimum wage: $14.20 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to New York child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week.

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 4 hours on Monday, Tuesday, Wednesday, or Thursday; 8 hours on Friday, Saturday, or Sunday; or 28 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week.

Required breaks: Employers in New York are required to provide workers with a meal break whenever they work for 6 or more hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:00 a.m. or after 10:00 p.m. when school is in session (they can work until 12:00 a.m. when school is not in session). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

New York Department of Labor Contact Information:

North Carolina

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to North Carolina child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers in North Carolina must provide minors between the ages of 14 to 15 with a 30-minute break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 5:00 a.m. or after 11:00 p.m. on days preceding a school day. It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

North Carolina Department of Labor Contact Information:

North Dakota

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to North Dakota child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: When two or more employees are on duty, employers are required to provide a 30-minute meal period for employees whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

North Dakota Department of Labor Contact Information:

Ohio

Minimum wage: The minimum wage in Ohio is $10.10 per hour for employers with annual gross receipts of $372,000 or more and $7.25 per hour for other employers.

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Ohio child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers must provide minors with a 30-minute rest period whenever they work 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:00 a.m. (as long as they were not working after 8:00 p.m. the previous night), before 7:00 a.m. on school days, or after 11:00 p.m. on days preceding a school day. It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Ohio Department of Labor Contact Information:

Oklahoma

Minimum wage: The minimum wage in Oklahoma is $7.25 per hour for employers that are covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers engaged in interstate commerce), have ten or more full-time employees at one location or have over $100,000 in annual gross sales. The rate is $2 per hour for all other employers.

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Oklahoma child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 must be provided with a one-hour rest period for every 8 consecutive hours worked or a 30-minute rest period for every 5 consecutive hours worked.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Oklahoma Department of Labor Contact Information:

Oregon

Minimum wage: $12.50 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Oregon child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours: 

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Also, minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work more than 44 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers are required to provide minors with a paid 15-minute rest break whenever they work for 4 or more consecutive hours and a 30-minute meal break whenever they work 6 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Oregon Department of Labor Contact Information:

Pennsylvania

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Pennsylvania child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours during the school week (if their employer is not covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act, they can work 8 additional hours on Saturdays and Sundays).
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 28 hours during the school week (they can work 8 additional hours on Saturdays and Sundays).
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 10 hours per day or 48 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week

Required breaks: Employers in Pennsylvania are required to provide minors with a 30-minute meal period whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:00 a.m. or after 12:00 a.m. (except during the summer break period, when they may work until 1:00 a.m.). 

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Pennsylvania Department of Labor Contact Information:

Rhode Island

Minimum wage: $13 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Rhode Island child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work more than 9 hours per day or 48 hours per week. They also may not work without an 8-hour respite between the end of a shift on one day and the start of work on the next day.

While all employers in Rhode Island are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: In most cases, employers are required to provide workers with a 20-minute meal break for 6-hour shifts and a 30-minute meal break for 8-hour shifts.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 6:00 a.m. (unless their employer is covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act — in that case, they may not work before 7:00 a.m.) or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). 

When school is in session, minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:00 a.m., after 11:30 p.m. on nights before a school day, or after 1:30 a.m. when there is no school the next day. 

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Rhode Island Department of Labor Contact Information:

South Carolina

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to South Carolina child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours per day or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers in South Carolina are not required to provide workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

South Carolina Department of Labor Contact Information:

South Dakota

Minimum wage: $10.80 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to South Dakota child labor laws, minors under the age of 16 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 4 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, or 20 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

While all employers in South Dakota are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in South Dakota are not required to provide their workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: According to South Dakota state law, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work later than 10:00 p.m. on any school night. 

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

South Dakota Department of Labor Contact Information:

Tennessee

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Tennessee child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers must provide minors with a 30-minute break whenever they work 6 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). Also, if their employer is not covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act, they may start work at 6:00 a.m. during summer break.

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 6:00 a.m. or after 10:00 p.m. on days preceding a school day. 

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Tennessee Department of Labor Contact Information:

Texas

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Texas child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are not allowed to work more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week.

While all employers in Texas are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Texas are not required to provide minors with any breaks.

Restrictions: According to Texas state law, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work before 5:00 a.m., after 10:00 p.m. on nights before a school day, or after 12:00 a.m. on nights that are not before a school day.

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Texas Department of Labor Contact Information:

Utah

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Utah child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work more than 4 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, or 40 hours per week.

While all employers in Utah are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Utah must provide minors with a 30-minute lunch break within the first 5 hours of their workday and a 10-minute break for every four hours worked (minors may not work more than 3 consecutive hours without taking a 10-minute break).

Restrictions: According to Utah state law, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work before 5:00 a.m. and may not work after 9:30 p.m. if there is school the next day.

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Utah Department of Labor Contact Information:

Vermont

Minimum wage: $13.18 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Vermont child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week.

Minors between the ages of 16 and 17 may not work more than 9 hours per day or 50 hours per week in a manufacturing or mechanical establishment.

Required breaks: Employers in Vermont are required to provide workers with “reasonable opportunities” during work periods to eat and use the bathroom.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Vermont Department of Labor Contact Information:

Virginia

Minimum wage: $12 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Virginia child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers in Virginia are required to provide minors with a 30-minute meal break whenever they work for 5 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Virginia Department of Labor Contact Information:

Washington

Minimum wage: $15.74 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Washington child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 16 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week.

Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 4 hours Monday through Thursday, 8 hours Friday through Sunday, or 20 hours per week.
  • On school weeks with special variance, they may not work more than 6 hours Monday through Thursday, 8 hours Friday through Sunday, or 28 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 48 hours per week.
  • They may not work more than 6 days per week.

Required breaks: Employers in Washington must provide minors under 16 years old with a rest period after 2 hours for every 4 hours of work as well as a meal period if they work more than 4 hours Minors between the ages of 16 to 17 are entitled to 10-minute rest period for every 4 hours of work as well as a 30-minute meal period if they work more than 5 hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). 

When school is in session, minors between the ages of 16 to 17 may not work before 7:00 a.m., after 10:00 p.m. on Monday through Thursday, or after 12:00 a.m. on Friday through Sunday. When school is not in session, they may not work before 5:00 a.m. or after 12:00 a.m.

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Washington Department of Labor Contact Information:

West Virginia

Minimum wage: $8.75 per hour for employers with 6 or more employees at one location. The rate is $7.25 per hour for all other employers.

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to West Virginia child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers in West Virginia are required to provide workers with a 20-minute meal break whenever they work for 6 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

West Virginia Department of Labor Contact Information:

Wisconsin

Minimum wage: $7.25 per hour

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Wisconsin child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 are allowed to work the following number of hours:

  • When school is in session, they may not work more than 3 hours on any school day, 8 hours on any non-school day, or 18 hours per week.
  • When school is not in session, they may not work more than 8 hours per day or 40 hours per week.

Required breaks: Employers in Wisconsin are required to provide minors with a 30-minute meal break whenever they work for 6 or more consecutive hours.

Restrictions: Minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work during school hours, before 7:00 a.m., or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.). Also, minors between the ages of 16 to 17 who are employed after 11:00 p.m. must have 8 hours of rest between the end of one shift and the start of their next shift.

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Wisconsin Department of Labor Contact Information:

Wyoming

Minimum wage: The minimum wage in Wyoming is $5.15 per hour. However, the rate is $7.25 per hour for employers in the state covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or are engaged in interstate commerce).

Number of hours minors can work: Minors under the age of 14 are generally not allowed to work, though there are exceptions for some occupations. According to Wyoming child labor laws, minors between the ages of 14 to 17 are not allowed to work more than 8 hours in any 12 hours.

While all employers in Wyoming are subject to these state regulations, employers covered by the Fair Labor Standards Act (i.e., employers whose annual sales total $500,000 or more or who are engaged in interstate commerce) are subject to stricter regulations. Specifically, this federal law limits minors between the ages of 14 to 15 to working no more than 3 hours per school day, 8 hours per non-school day, 18 hours per week when school is in session, or 40 hours per week when school is not in session.

Required breaks: Employers in Wyoming are not required to provide workers with any breaks.

Restrictions: According to Wyoming state law, minors enrolled in school may not work before 5:00 a.m., after 10:00 p.m. on nights before a school day, or after 12:00 a.m. on nights that are not before a school day.

Also, according to the Fair Labor Standards Act, minors between the ages of 14 to 15 may not work before 7:00 a.m. or after 7:00 p.m. (there is an exception for the summer break period of June 1 through Labor Day, when they may work until 9:00 p.m.).

It's worth noting that minors are prohibited from working at all in certain hazardous occupations as well.

Wyoming Department of Labor Contact Information:

What Small Business Owners Need to Know About Hiring Minors

Now that we’ve covered the legal side of hiring a minor, we’ll discuss how to effectively hire a teen job seeker and the documentation that may or may not be required to employ them. This section will discuss where to find minor job applicants, how to interview them, and how to create a youth-friendly work environment. Then we’ll discuss the penalties an employer could be charged with if found violating child labor laws, both federally and at the state level.

Where to find minor job applicants

Job Boards: Online job boards are a great place to advertise new job openings and even high school internships to the local teen population. There are, however, a few websites specifically designed for teens looking for work. Posting job listings on websites such as HireTeen, Teens4Hire, and SummerJobs is a great way to broaden your hiring pool to include minor applicants.

Local Schools: Employers can work with local schools to present job opportunities to teens interested in landing their first job or earning money over summer break. Both high schools and colleges will host a career fair at least once a year to bring local businesses and teens together in a more casual environment. This is a great place to offer both jobs and internships for students in the area.

Social Media: According to a recent survey conducted by Pew Research, 35% of U.S. teens admit to being on at least one of the five leading social media platforms almost constantly, with YouTube and TikTok being the most popular choices. Launching an age-targeted hiring campaign through social media is one great way to get the attention of the job-seeking teens in your area.

How to interview minor job applicants

It’s helpful to use behavioral interview questions to assess key skills and how they will relate to the job. For example, you can ask: Tell me about a time you were given an assignment and didn’t understand what you needed to do. What did you do?

Here are some additional questions to ask your minor job applicant:

1. What skills and experience do you have that will help you be successful in this position?
2. Tell me about a time when you had to work on a team through a challenging situation. What did you do?
3. What is one of your biggest accomplishments?
4. How will you balance work, school, and extracurricular obligations?
5. Why do you want to work for our company?
6. Do you have any questions about the position?

Also, remember when interviewing a minor that it could very well be their first interview. Chances are they’re nervous and not sure what to expect. Kindness, patience, and a little humor go a long way.

What work permits and documentation is required?

As we briefly mentioned above, work permit requirements vary from state to state. In some instances, employers will need to obtain their own permits before they even consider hiring a minor and will need to keep copies of certain documents on file for the duration of the minor’s employment. States may also require minors to hold permits of their own verifying their age and ability to work. These work permits are supplied by the DOL or the minor’s school. Here is a list of documents that may or may not be needed for the legal employment of a minor:

  • Child Labor Certificate
  • School Release Permit
  • Age Certificate
  • Written parent authorization
  • Copy of birth certificate, driver’s license, passport, state-issued ID, or Form I-9

How to create a minor-friendly workplace

Keep required documentation handy: Any permit, certificate, or authorization necessary to employ minors in your state should be available onsite, either physically or digitally. Be sure to stay on top of annual updates for minor employees working more than one year in the same position within your company.

Be mindful of scheduling: Outside of regular school hours, employers should be aware of any sports or extracurricular activities they will need to schedule around. Set clear guidelines for how much notice needs to be given when requesting time off or schedule changes, and keep track of hours carefully to stay within the legal limits set by your state.

Enforce duty restrictions: It’s unlawful for minors to perform job duties deemed to be hazardous, and those under 18 should not be operating any vehicle or heavy machinery. Be sure your minor employees know the law when it comes to duties that are off-limits.

Assign a mentor: Give your young hire a mentor they can work beside and learn from on the job. As a business owner or manager, you may not have the capacity to train and teach tasks in-depth, so pairing them with a competent employee will give them someone that can answer their many questions and help them feel like they’re part of the team.

Take time to coach: If this is a first job for your teen employee, they’ll likely need more time and one-on-one help during the first few weeks on the job. Be patient and take the time to coach and encourage them through difficult or stressful situations.

Penalties for violating child labor laws

The FLSA has given the DOL the authority to investigate suspected violations of its child labor rules. Record examination and employee interviews may be conducted during the investigation. The DOL then decides whether to give a warning, a civil money penalty or take offenders to federal court. Let’s look at these consequences in detail:

  • Civil Money Penalties: Employers may be charged anywhere from $11,000 to $100,000 for each employee who is a victim of a child labor violation. A written exception from the employer can be filed to the Wage and Hour Division, resulting in a hearing before an administrative law judge.
  • Injunction: The U.S. District Courts are given authority by the FLSA to stop child labor law violations from occurring. Employers may be summoned to court, where they will be forced to agree to comply or be prohibited from operating.
  • Criminal Action: If an employer willfully violates any of the child labor rules, they may be fined up to $10,000. A person can even be imprisoned for up to 6 months if they commit a second offense.
  • “Hot Goods” Action: Legal action can be taken to prevent the shipment of goods that were produced within a U.S. establishment that has been found in violation of child labor laws within the past 30 days.

Child Labor Law Resources

  • United States Department of Labor. The DOL’s list of general guidance, fact sheets, e-Tools, and other publications on child labor is a great starting point. It also covers FAQs for specific occupations and penalties for violations.
  • State Child Labor Laws. For detailed information on state-specific child labor laws, check out the DOL’s State Labor Laws page. Laws for each state are listed in an easy-to-read table and cover topics such as age certification, entertainment, door-to-door sales, nonagricultural employment, and agricultural employment.
  • Nonagricultural Child Labor Bulletin. The Wage and Hour Division created two bulletins that outline child labor provisions for both categories of work: nonagricultural and agricultural. This bulletin covers all standards for nonagricultural topics such as minimum age, wages, hours, and duties.
  • Agricultural Child Labor Bulletin. The second of two bulletins created by the Wage and Hour Division, this bulletin details the same standards as above but for agricultural work. Additional information about the agricultural industry is also covered, such as training programs, student-learners, and 4-H.
  • YouthRules. Learn more about the YouthRules! Initiative on this DOL webpage. This resource has been tailored to serve young workers, parents, educators, and employers with child labor law information specific to each group.
  • Youth.gov. The federal rules and regulations for youth employment are clearly laid out on this government website. Job restrictions and unpaid internships are covered in detail for each age group.
  • Worker.gov. This is a great resource for employers looking for more information about workers’ rights and how to be an ethical employer of minors. The webpage also provides links to additional resources on the topic.
  • Fair Labor Standards Act Compliance Assistance Toolkit. The FLSA Toolkit provides access to The Handy Reference Guide to Fair Labor Standards Act (available in Spanish) and FLSA Fact Sheets. Employers will also find relevant posters that must be hung in the workplace, such as the FLSA Minimum Wage poster.

Hiring Minors FAQ

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Stacie Haller headshot

Stacie Haller

Chief Career Advisor

Stacie Haller has spent over 30 years in staffing and recruiting, career counseling, and job search coaching – assisting and mentoring candidates in achieving their career goals. Her real world hiring and staffing experience in every economic climate spans major global staffing organizations as a senior executive. Stacie has hands on executive recruiting expertise and experience as well as having hired hundreds of candidates herself.